بررسی وضعیت کار کودکان در حقوق ایران، از منظرِ ماده چهار اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد همدان

چکیده

کار کودکان، به منزله بهره ­کشی از ظرفیت بالقوه نسل آینده برای نسل حاضر است و فرصت توسعه فردی را از کودک می­رباید. نظام­های حقوقی در ارتباط با این مقوله راه­کارهای گوناگونی در پیش می­گیرند؛ از این بین نظام حقوقی ایران راه­کارِ ممنوعیت مطلقِ کار کودکان را انتخاب کرده است که به نظر می­رسد با واقعیت فرهنگی و اقتصادی حاکم بر جامعه سازگاری ندارد. راه­کار جایگزین می­تواند محدودیت همه انواع کار و ممنوعیتِ مسؤلانه آن دسته از کارهایی باشد که کودکان را در وضعیت بردگی قرار می­دهد. منظور از بردگی، قرارگرفتن در یکی از این حالات است: اعمال حقوق مالکانه بر انسان، انجام بدترین اشکال کار و نداشتن وقتِ خصوصی. دولت می­تواند از طریق نظارتِ کنش­گر، پاسخ­گو کردن بخشِ خصوصی در برابر کار کودکان، بازنگری در جایگاه حقوقی کودک، استثنا قائل نشدن برای حوزه شمول قانون کار و تمایز گذاشتن میان انواع کار از حیث حداقل سن ورود و شرایط حاکم بر هر شغل مانع از قرار گرفتن کودک در یکی از این وضعیت­ها به واسطه مناسبات کار شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Status of Labor of Children in Iran, In The Light Of Article IV of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

چکیده [English]

Child labour is a pretext for exploitation potential capacity of future generation by current generation. Child laborer misses the time of personal development. Various methodes have been applied by legal systems to fight against child labour. Choice of legal system of Iran, forbidding the labour of child under fifteen without exception, seems incompatible with cultural and economical realities of society. Putting limitation to all types of work and forbidding slavish one, in a responsive manner, is more practical way to fight against child labour. Elements of slavery are: 1.exercising any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a human; 2.not having private time; 3.doing the worst form of labour. Put an end on child slavery requires crucial will of government to reform legal system via active monitoring, responsibility of private sector for child labour, review child legal status and distinguishing between types of work conditions and minimum employment age.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Child Labour
  • Slavery
  • Minimum Age for Employment
  • Exercising the Powers Attaching to the Right of Ownership
  • Private Time
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