لزوم تشکیل رکن تجدیدنظر در داوری سرمایه‌گذاری بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی - واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران (نویسنده مسئول)

2 دانشجوی دکتری رشته حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

10.22034/jlr.2019.155032.1265

چکیده

امروزه داوری سرمایه‌گذاری بین‌المللی علیرغم نقش مؤثری که در حل و فصل اختلافات میان دولت‌ها و سرمایه‌گذاران خارجی دارد با انتقادهای جدی مواجه است. یکی از مهمترین این انتقادات صدور آرای متناقض در دعاوی مشابه است که انسجام و پیش‌بینی پذیری آرای داوری را از بین برده و با ناتوانی از ایجاد امنیت حقوقی، مشروعیت داوری سرمایه‌گذاری بین‌المللی را مخدوش نموده است. این مقاله ضمن بررسی تفصیلی عواملی که سبب شکل‌گیری بحران موردنظر شده است، اثرات مثبت تشکیل یک رکن تجدیدنظر در داوری سرمایه‌گذاری را در حل مشکلات فوق ارزیابی می‌کند. سپس با بررسی موردی گزینه‌های مختلفی که می‌توانند به عنوان چنین رکنی مورد استفاده قرار گیرند، پیشنهاد می‌کند که ساختار مرکز حل و فصل اختلافات ناشی از سرمایه‌گذاری (ایکسید) توسط دولت‌های عضو آن مورد بازنگری و اصلاح قرار گیرد، به طوری که با اصلاح کنوانسیون 1965 واشنگتن، نهاد کمیته ابطال موجود در ایکسید به یک رکن ثابت و دائمی برای تجدیدنظر از آرای داوری سرمایه‌گذاری تبدیل گردد. علاوه بر اصلاحات مزبور، این مقاله گسترش جهات تجدیدنظرخواهی، انتخاب قضات ثابت و آشنا به حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، جلوگیری از وکالت همزمان قضات در سایر پرونده ها، و تعیین مهلت مشخص برای صدور رأی تجدیدنظر را به عنوان دیگر موارد مهمی که باید در این راستا مورد توجه قرار گیرند پیشنهاد می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Necessity of Establishing an Appellate Body in International Investment Arbitration

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen MOHEBI 1
  • Soheila EBRAHIMI LOUYEH 2
1 Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law, Theology, and Political Science of Islamic Azad University – Science and Research Branch (First Author)
2 PhD Candidate in International Law at Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Despite its significant role in settling disputes between sovereign States and foreign investors, the international investment arbitration has been subject to substantial criticisms the most important of which is the inconsistency of awards in similar cases; a serious issue that dismantles the coherence and predictability of awards and undermines the legitimacy of international investment arbitration. In this article, the issues that give rise to the current crisis as well as the potential impacts of an appellate body to be established to review the inconsistent investment arbitration awards will be discussed. In the following, various options that can serve for this purpose will be theoretically and practically assessed. Eventually, after evaluating all the proposed options, the article concludes that the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) is the best option for this purpose in a manner that the Annulment Committee of ICSID is modified in order to transform into a comprehensive, fixed, and permanent appellate body acting within ICSID to review and, if necessary, correct the appealed awards. This proposal of course entails the structural modification of ICSID and thus requires the revision of ICSID Convention. Moreover, the article proposes a number of other suggested modifications to the ICSID Convention including expansion of appeal grounds, appointing fixed appellate judges familiar with public international law, preventing judges of the appellate body from simultaneously arbitrating other investment disputes, and fixing a deadline for the appellate body to decide.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Investment Arbitration
  • Legitimacy Crisis
  • Inconsistent Awards
  • Appellate Body
  • ICSID
ف

فهرست منابع

پیران، حسین، شرط التزام در معاهدات دوجانبه سرمایه‌گذاری، مجله حقوقی بین‌المللی، 1388، شماره 40، صص 259-288.

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