امکان سنجی گذار به حقوق طبیعی در روابط بین الملل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشجو / دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

10.22034/jlr.2019.164182.1299

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر، نسبت‌سنجی میان حقوق طبیعی با پوزیتیویسم حقوقی در روابط بین‌الملل است که دیرزمانی مسألۀ بزرگ لاینحل در حقوق بین‌الملل محسوب می‌شود. یافته‌های تحقیق مزبور دستاوردهای قریب به پانصد ساله از عصر روشنگری است که در بطن نظریات بنیادی حقوق دانان و فلاسفۀ حقوق، داوران و قضات بین‌المللی منطوی شده است.بدین ترتیب ،شواهد فایق شدن «حقوق طبیعی» بر پوزیتیویسم حقوقی را مدلل می دارد ، که این واقعیت انکارناپذیردرقرن 21 میلادی است .خوش بختانه ، حقوق طبیعی پیوند ناگسستنی با حقوق مردم جدید دارد .این وضعیت به ظهور قواعد جدید مبتنی بر حقوق مردم ، بر روابط بین الملل سوق پیدا کرده است.می‌توان به این نتیجه رسید که با باز احیاء حقوق طبیعی در نیمۀ دوم قرن بیستم پوزیتیویسم حقوقی بتدریج رنگ باخته است زیرا پوزیتیویسم در همۀ حقوق موضوعه اعم از داخلی و بین‌المللی نمی‌تواند به روش تجربی مقبول این مکتب جدید که در مقابل مکتب حقوق طبیعی عقلانی شده خودنمایی می‌کند، قواعد حقوقی جدید استنباط کرده، بر روابط بین‌الملل حاکم نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Feasibility study for the realization of New Natural Law On international relations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Mahmoody 1
  • Reza Hamidzadeh 2
1 Faculty/Shanid Beheshti University
2 Student/Faculty /Shaind Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

The research hypothesis can be that in the course of the feasibility of the two Schools of the new Natural law and the legal positivism , the gradual overcome to inference of the legal rules governing international relations leads toward which school.
As contemporary Public International Law recognizes rights and duties to the individuals (as evidenced by the international instruments of human rights), one cannot deny them international personality, without which that recognition could not take place. Also in the American continent, in the XXth century, even before the adoption of the American and Universal Declarations of Human Rights of 1948, doctrinal manifestations flourished in favour of the international juridical personality of the individuals .
Then the evidence denotes that the” Natural Law” overcome the legal positivism, and this is an undeniable fact in the 21st Century. Fortunately, the natural law are irrefrangible linked to new jus gentium. This had led to the emergence of new rules based on the new jus gentium , to international relations. Because the jus gentium recognizes individuals as direct subjects of international relations, and furthermore, beyond the "will" of stats , governs the universal norms and rules are on the individuals.
This hypothesis, regardless of the threat or use of force in the framework of “the new Jus Gentium” "Humans" deployed the transition of individuals relations instead of states in the human global community . Therefore, the natural law and jus gentium are well able to govern global public order in the worldwide.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rationalized Natural Law
  • legal positivism
  • International Law
  • Jus Gentium
  • Legal Theory
 

 

فهرست منابع

الف-منابع فارسی

1-پاسرین إن تروز ، الکساندر.«حقوق طبیعی ، درآمدی برفلسلفۀ حقوق» ، ترجمۀ محمدحسین طالبی ،مجلۀ معرفت، شمارۀ 49 ، دی 1380.

2-طالبی ،محمد حسین .«نظریۀ حقوق طبیعی درفلسفۀ حقوق» ،مجلۀ معرفت، شمارۀ46 ،مهر1380 .

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62.Set forth in Article 36(1) of the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations and linked to the guarantees of the due process of law under Article 8 of the American Convention on Human Rights.