وتوی رئیس جمهور در حقوق ایالات متحده آمریکا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه حقوق دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه مازندران

2 گروه حقوق، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر

3 دانشگاه مازندران

10.22034/jlr.2020.154400.1260

چکیده

قانون اساسی آمریکا وظیفه امضای طرح‌های مصوب کنگره را به رئیس جمهور واگذار کرده است. رئیس جمهور می‌تواند ظرف مهلت ده روز طرح مصوب کنگره را امضا نماید که در نتیجه آن، مصوبه به قانون تبدیل می‌شود. اگر رئیس جمهور ظرف این مدت مصوبه را به هر دلیل رد کند و به مجلس منشآ برگرداند به این اقدام رئیس جمهوری وتوی عادی می‌گویند. مجلسین می‌توانند پس از بررسی مجدد با دو سوم آرای اعضا بر مصوبه قبلی خود اصرار کنند که در این صورت وتوی رئیس جمهور بی‌اثر شده و مصوبه کنگره بدون نیاز به امضای رئیس جمهور، قانون می‌شود. اگر مهلت ده روزه رئیس جمهور بگذرد و رئیس جمهور امضا یا وتوی خویش را اعلام نکند و حال آنکه کنگره در اجلاسیه است، مصوبه به قانون تبدیل می‌شود ولی اگر کنگره در اجلاسیه نباشد، مصوبه به قانون تبدیل نمی‌شود که به آن وتوی جیبی می‌گویند. لذا وتوی جیبی در زمان تعطیلی‌های بین اجلاسیه‌ای و نهایی کنگره امکان‌پذیر است ولی در زمان تعطیلی‌های درون اجلاسیه‌ای کنگره امکان-پذیر نیست و مغایر قانون اساسی است. دیوان عالی به صراحت وتوی جزیی مصوبات کنگره را مغایر قانون اساسی اعلام کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presidential veto in US legal system

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Taghizadeh 1
  • Morteza Nejabatkhah 2
  • Elyas Kalkali 3
1 Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Mazandaran
2 Department of law, faculty of law and political sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
3 University of Mazandaran
چکیده [English]

The US Constitution mandates the President to sign the bills approved by the Congress. The president can, within a deadline of ten days, sign a bill approved by the Congress, which will result to a law. If the President rejects the bill within that deadline for any reason and returns to the House which it was originated, the President's action shall be considered as a regular veto. After reconsideration, the Houses may, with two-thirds of the votes of their members, insist on its previous resolution, in which case the president's veto will be ineffective and the congressional resolution becomes a law without President's sign. If the ten-day deadline passes and the president does not announce his signature or veto, while the congress is at a session, the bill becomes a law; however, if the congress is not in session, the bill will not become a law. In this case, the pocket veto has been taken. Therefore, a pocket veto is possible at the time of the intersession and final session closurs of congress, but it is not feasible and is contrary to the constitution at the time of intrasession closurs of congress. The Supreme Court has unequivocally proclaimed the partial veto of the approved bills as a constitutional violation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Veto
  • President
  • Congress
  • Constitution
  • USA
 
منابع و مآخذ
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