حقوق تطبیقی در دادگاه: مطالعه پیوند قضایی در حقوق خصوصی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق خصوصی/ دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار حقوق خصوصی/ دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه تهران

10.22034/jlr.2020.185102.1651

چکیده

فواید حقوق تطبیقی در جهان امروز دیگر محدود به قوه قانونگذار نمی باشد. دادرسان نیز، در مقام تفسیر قضایی از یافته های حقوق تطبیقی بهره می برند به گونه ای که گاه حقوق خارجی دلیل عمده صدور رای دادگاه در قضیه ای است که حقوق داخلی درباره آن نیازمند تفسیر است. استناد قاضی به حقوق خارجی در این معنا در مطالعات حقوق تطبیقی با عنوان "پیوند قضایی" بررسی می شود که موضوعی پیچیده و در شمار جدیدترین بحث های حقوقی روز دنیا است. در ادبیات حقوقی کشورمان بررسی این موضوع و ابعاد و شرایط آن فاقد سابقه است. در این مقاله، نگارندگان کوشیده اند تا با روشی تحلیلی، تطبیقی و با استفاده از مطالعات موردی، در حوزه حقوق خصوصی، به معرفی و بررسی پیوند قضایی در نظام های کامن لو، حقوق نوشته و نظام حقوقی کشورمان بپردازند. این مطالعه نشان می دهد، پیوند قضایی در خانواده کامن لو در مقایسه با حقوق نوشته فراوانی و وضوح بیشتری دارد. با این حال، در حقوق نوشته نیز در سالیان اخیر، تحولات مهمی به نفع ترویج پیوند قضایی به چشم می خورد. بررسی پیوند قضایی در نظام حقوقی کشورمان، نشان می دهد با در نظر گرفتن اصول قانون اساسی و قوانین ملی، استناد دادرس ایرانی به حقوق خارجی و پیوند احتمالی قواعد آن، راهکاری ممکن در تفسیر قضایی است. بدین سان، در ادامه این پژوهش، برخی مصادیق پیوند قضایی در نظام حقوقی کشورمان شناسایی و بررسی می گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Law in Court: A Study of Judicial Transplants in Private Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hasna Haj Najafi 1
  • Amir Sadeghi Neshat 2
1 PhD Candidate/ Private Law/ University of Tehran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

In the world today, benefits of comparative law are not limited to the legislature. While interpreting laws, judges also make use of comparative law. Recourse to foreign law, sometimes, constitutes the main reason for court's decision when a rule of domestic law is obscure and requires interpretation. Judicial reference to foreign law, in this sense, is studied under the title of "judicial transplants", which is a complex and recent topic in the field of comparative law. In the legal literature of Iran, studying judicial transplants, as well as their dimensions and conditions, is unprecedented. In this article, the authors try to introduce judicial transplants in the field of private law in common law, civil law and the legal system of Iran through an analytical, comparative and case study approach. This study shows that judicial transplants in common law (except in the case of the United States) are more frequent and vivid as compared to civil law. However, in recent years, there have also been significant developments in favor of judicial transplants in civil law countries. Study of judicial transplants in the legal system of Iran suggests that, considering the Constitution and national laws of the country, it is possible for Iranian judges, under special circumstances, to refer to foreign rules and possibly transplant them in conducting judicial interpretation. Thus, in the remainder of this study, some examples of judicial transplants in Iran are identified and investigated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • comparative law
  • judicial interpretation
  • judicial transplant
  • legal transplant
فایل کلیه منابع به انگلیسی

References

Books and Articles:

 

  1. Afshar, Hasan, (1976) General Law of Comparative Law, Tehran: University of Tehran Press. (In Persian)
  2. Albarian, Alexis, (2015), “The Use of Comparative Law before the French Cour de Cassation: The View From Academia”, in Andenas & Fairgrieve, eds., Courts and Comparative Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 483-494.
  3. Aliabadi, Abdol Hossein (1973), "Analysis of the Supreme Court on Rent", Journal of the Faculty of Law and Political Science, no. 14, pp. 1-8. (In Persian)
  4. American Law Institute, (1981), Restatement (Second) of Contracts, Vol. 2, Minnesota: American Law Institute Publishers.
  5. Andenas, Mads and Fairgrieve, Duncan, (2015), “Courts and Comparative Law: In Search of a Common Language for Open Legal Systems”, in Andenas & Fairgrieve, eds., Courts and Comparative Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 3-22.
  6. Bermann, George, (2017), “Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards: The Interpretation and Application of New York Convention by National Courts” in Bermann, ed., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards: The Interpretation and Application of New York Convention by National Courts, Springer, pp. 1-78.
  7. Bingham, Thomas H., (2010), Widening Horizons: The Influence of Comparative Law and International Law on Domestic Law, Cambridge University Press.
  8. Bobek, Michal, (2013), Comparative Reasoning in European Supreme Courts, Oxford University Press.
  9. Canivet, Guy (2015), “The Use of Comparative Law Before the French Private Law Courts”, in in Andenas & Fairgrieve, eds., Courts and Comparative Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 472-482.
  10. Cuniberti, Gilles, (2012), “Enhancing Judicial Reputation through Legal Transplants Estoppel Travels to France”, The American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 60, pp. 383-400.
  11. Dam, Cees van, (2013), European Tort Law, Oxford University Press, 2nd ed.
  12. Drobnig, Ulrich and Erp, Sjef van, (1999), The Use of Comparative Law by Courts, Kluwer Law International.
  13. Elham, Gholamhoseyn, Zahravi, Reza, (2018) "A Comparative Analysis of the Challenges Posed by the Silence of the Law in the Iranian Criminal Law and Jurisprudence", Comparative Law Review, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 443-473. (In Persian)
  14. Emami, Seyed Hasan (2005), Civil Law, Vol. 1, 25 printing, Tehran: Islamiyah Publishing. (In Persian)
  15. Fedtke, Jörg, (2006), “Legal Transplants”in Smits, ed., Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, Edward Elgar, pp. 434-437.
  16. Finkelman, Paul, (2007), “Foreign Law and American Constitutional Interpretation: A Long and Venerable Tradition”, Journal of New York University Annual Survey of American Law, vol.63, issue 1, pp. 29-62.
  17. Gelter, Martin and Siems, Mathias, (2014 (A)), “Citations to Foreign Courts—Illegitimate and Superfluous, or Unavoidable? Evidence from Europe”, The American journal of Comparative Law, vol. 61, pp. 35-86.
  18. Gelter, Martin, and Siems, Mathias, (2014 (B)), “Language, Legal Origins, and Culture Before the Courts: Cross-Citations Between Supreme Courts in Europe”, Supreme Court Economic Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 215-269.
  19. Gelter, Martin and Siems, Mathias, (2015), “Networks, Dialogue or One-Way Traffic? An Empirical Analysis of Cross-Citations Between Ten of Europe’s Highest Courts” in Andenas & Fairgrieve, eds., Courts and Comparative Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 200-212.
  20. Glenn, Patrick, (2010), Legal Traditions of the World, 4th ed., Oxford University Press.
  21. Graziano, Thomas Kander, (2015), “Is It Legitimate and Beneficial for Judges to Compare?” in Andenas & Fairgrieve, eds., Courts and Comparative Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 25-53.
  22. Hirschl, Ran, (2014), Comparative Matters: The Renaissance of Comparative Constitutional Law, Oxford University Press.
  23. Katouzian, Nasser (1996), Droit Transitoire: Les Conflits de Lois dans le Temps, 3 publishing, Tehran: Dadgostar. (In Persian)
  24. Ibid (2000), Generalities on Law: General theory, Tehran: Enteshar Corporation. (In Persian)
  25. Ibid (2003), Introduction to the Science of Law and Studies on the Legal System of Iran, 33 publishing, Tehran: Enteshar Corporation. (In Persian)
  26. Ibid (2006), Philosophy of Law, vol. 2 (Sources of Law), 3 publishing, Tehran: Enteshar Corporation. (In Persian)
  27. Ibid (2006), Philosophy of Law, vol. 3 (Logic of Law), 3 publishing, Tehran: Enteshar Corporation. (In Persian)
  28. Ibid (2012), "Preface", in Aliabadi, Hossein, Judicial Rules of the Supreme Court of Iran, Criminal Judgements Division, vol.1, Tehran: Enteshar Corporation, pp. 9-12. (In Persian)
  29. Jafari Tabar, Hassan (2004), Philosophical Foundations of Legal Interpretation, Tehran: Enteshar Corporation. (In Persian)
  30. Ibid (2018), The Devil in the Bottle: on the Philosophy of Precedent, 2nd ed., Tehran: Negah-e Moaser Publishing. (In Persian)
  31. Kiikeri, Markku, (2001), Comparative Legal Reasoning and European Law, Springer.
  32. Kischel, Uwe, (2019), Comparative Law, Andrew, Hammel, trans., Oxford University Press.
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  36. Mak, Elaine, (2013), Judicial Decision-Making in a Globalised World: A Comparative Analysis of the Changing Practices of Western Highest Courts, Hart Publishing.
  37. Markesinis, Basil and Fedtke, Jörg, (2007), Judicial Recourse to Foreign Law: A New Source of Inspiration?, London: Routledge-Cavendish Publishing.
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  39. Marousi, Ali (2011), Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal Reports, vol. 1, Tehran: Center for International Legal Affairs of the Presidency. (In Persian)
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  41. Mousourakis, George, (2013), “Legal Transplants and Legal Development: A Jurisprudential and Comparative Law Approach”, Acta Juridica Hungarica, vol. 54, issue 3, pp. 219-236
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  44. Resnik, Judith, (2015), “Constructing the Foreign: American Law’s Relationship to Non-Domestic Sources” in Andenas & Fairgrieve, eds., Courts and Comparative Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 437-471.
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  50. Smits, Jan, (2002 (B)), The Making of European Private Law: Toward a Ius Commune Europaeum as a Mixed Legal System, Kornet, Nicole trans., Antwerp: Intersentia.
  51. Twining, William, (2004), “Diffusion of Law: A Global Perspective”, The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, Volume 36, Issue 49, pp. 1-45.
  52. Unberath, Hannes and Stadler, Astrid, (2015), “Comparative Law in the German Courts” in Andenas & Fairgrieve, eds., Courts and Comparative Law, Oxford University Press, pp.581-594.
  53. Valcke, Catherine, (2010), “La Greffe Juridique en Droit Comparé”, in Internationalisation du droit, Internationalisation de la justice, Actes du 3 e congrès Association des Hautes Juridictions de Cassation des pays Ayant en partage l'usage du Français, 21-23 juin Cour Suprême du Canada, online at: http://v1.ahjucaf.org/IMG/pdf/Internationalisation_du_droit.pdf  .
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Jurisprudence

 

Iranian Judgements: (in Persian)

  1. Binding Precedent of the Supreme Court, no. 12, on: (1962/10/3) , online at: https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/101593
  2. Binding Precedent of the Supreme Court, no. 42, on: (1972/10/24), online at: https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/101615.
  3. Binding Precedent of the Supreme Court, no. 62, on: (1973/1/31), online at: https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/101627 .
  4. Binding Precedent of the Supreme Court, no. 224, on: (1970/9/30), online at: https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/101624
  5. Judgement no. (9109970001001256), on: (2013/1/16), Issued by (Branch 50 of Tehran Provincial Court of Appeal). 
  6. Judgement no. (9209970223500024), on: (2013/4/13), Issued by (Branch 35 of Tehran Provincial Court of Appeal). 
  7. Judgement no.  (9309970223300886), on: (2014/9/27), Issued by (Branch 33of Tehran Provincial Court of Appeal). 
  8. Judgement no. (9309970224401163), on: (2014/11/30), Issued by (Branch 44 of Tehran Provincial Court of Appeal). 
  9. Judgement no. (9209970220101717), on: (2014/3/3), Issued by (Branch 1 of Tehran Provincial Court of Appeal), online at: http://j.ijri.ir/SubSystems/Jpri2/Showjudgement.aspx?id=UlhET0Z2aTJFdEk9
  10. Judgement no. (9209970270400496), on: (2013/8/19), Issued by (Branch 59 of Tehran Provincial Court of Appeal), online at: http://j.ijri.ir/SubSystems/Jpri2/Showjudgement.aspx?id=K0RrYk9zV3F6Z009
 

Foreign Judgements:

  1. TF (The Swiss Federal Court) 28.11.2006, ATF 133 III 257 (parrots case).
  2. Golshani v. Gouvernement de la Re´publique islamique d’Iran, Cass. Civ 1, July 6, 2005.
  3. Express Newspapers plc v News (UK) Ltd [1990] 3 All ER 376 (Ch).
  4. Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd [2002] UKHL 22.
  1. Perruche JCP 13 Dec 2000, no 50, pp 2293 ff.