حمایت از حق بر سلامت در دعاوی سرمایه گذاری ناشی از بیماری های فراگیر جهانی با تکیه بر کووید-19

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بهشتی

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه تهران

10.22034/jlr.2020.185255.1700

چکیده

اقداماتی که دولت‌های میزبان سرمایه‌گذاری به منظور مقابله با بیماری‌های فراگیر جهانی از جمله کووید-19 انجام می‌دهند، اگرچه برای حفظ سلامت عمومی جامعه حیاتی هستند اما ممکن است منجر به طرح دعاوی متعدد توسط سرمایه‌گذاران خارجی و صدور حکم به پرداخت خسارات هنگفتی شود که توانایی دولت میزبان برای حفظ سلامت عمومی افراد جامعه را بسیار محدود می نماید. با توجه به اینکه تعداد قابل توجهی از معاهدات سرمایه گذاری فاقد شرط استثنای مربوط به سلامت عمومی هستند در بسیاری از دعاوی ناشی از بیماری‌های فراگیر جهانی، دولت‌های میزبان در چارچوب معاهدات سرمایه گذاری امکان معافیت از مسئولیت اقداماتی که برای مقابله با بیماری‌ها انجام داده‌اند را نخواهند داشت. از آنجا که محدود نمودن دولت میزبان به دفاعیات موجود در معاهدات سرمایه گذاری به معنای غلبه آشکار منافع سرمایه‌گذار بر منافع دولت میزبان و نادیده گرفتن سلامت عمومی افراد جامعه است، این مقاله با روش اکتشافی و با مراجعه به اسناد مرتبط در حقوق بین‌الملل و رویه داوری به بررسی این مسئله می‌پردازد که در صورت سکوت معاهدات سرمایه-گذاری، به منظور حمایت از حق بر سلامت افراد، چه دفاعیاتی بر اساس حقوق بین‌الملل برای دولت میزبان ممکن خواهد بود و الزامات استناد دولت میزبان به هر یک از این دفاعیات چه خواهد بود.

واژگان کلیدی
اصل اختیارات سیاست گذاری، دفاع عرفی ضرورت، بیماری کووید-19، حق بر سلامت، حقوق بین الملل بشر، حقوق بین الملل سرمایه گذاری، حقوق بین الملل عرفی، دعاوی سرمایه گذاری خارجی، مسئولیت اجتماعی شرکت ها، ویروس کرونا

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Protecting the Right to Health in Investment Claims Arising from Pandemics With particular attention to Covid-19

نویسندگان [English]

  • bahmaei bahmaei 1
  • Ali shahbazian 2
1 دانشگاه بهشتی
2 student
چکیده [English]

Protecting the Right to Health in Investment Claims Arising from Pandemics
With particular attention to Covid-19


Abstract
The measures taken by the host states to control the pandemics, including Covid-19, are vital to maintaining the public health, but may lead to the numerous claims by foreign investors and payment of huge compensations, as a result of which ability of the host states to maintain the public health will be greatly limited. Given that the exception clause in respect of public health is mentioned only in a small number of investment treaties, in most claims arising from pandemics, host states cannot be exempted from responsibility under international investment law for measures they have taken to control the disease. Since restricting the host state to existing defenses in international investment law means a clear overcoming of the investor's interests over the interests of the host state and ignoring the right to health of the society, this article, adopting an explorative method, refers to the relevant documents in international law and arbitration practice to determine what defenses under international law would be available for the host state in order to maintain the right to health, if the investment treaties are silent, and what would be the requirements for the host state to assert any of such defenses.

Keywords
Principle of police powers, Customary Defense of Necessity, Covid-19 Disease, Right to health, International Human Rights Law, International Investment Law, International Customary Law, Foreign Investment Claims, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Corona Virus

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Principle of police powers
  • Customary Defense of Necessity
  • Covid-19 Disease
  • right to health
منابع

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•            

 

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