Reflection on the Legal-Ethical Problems of Chimera Biotechnology; a Case Study of the International Instruments

Document Type : Original Article


1 University of Qom

2 Ph. D. Candidate in Public International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran



The creation of chimeras, especially human-animal mixing, has raised numerous ethical and legal issues in medical science and biology. On the one hand, these organisms may have adverse effects and serious risks to human health and life as well as biodiversity. On the other hand, they can have benefits, such as helping patients with medical problems. Therefore, scientific research in this field should not be prohibited or restricted. This has led to a number of ethical-legal controversies.

The key question is whether the research and production of chimeras is legally and morally justifiable and permissible? In this paper, some legal-ethical aspects of the research and creation of Chimera creatures in the light of international documents and the rules are examined and evaluated. there are three general approaches to absolute disagreement, relative disagreement, and agreement. In international documents, although there is no comprehensive document in this area, some of the international norms and norms mentioned in international documents in the field of biomedicine, human genome and animal rights are related to the research and production of chimeras. The basic presumption of this article is based on the answer to the question that governments are obliged to authorize scientific activities related to Chimera and hybrids to observe the precautionary aspect and even possibly its adverse effects on living things.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 30 April 2023
  • Receive Date: 18 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 19 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 30 April 2023