Conciliation and Mediation as Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms for Civil and Commercial Disputes and the Viability of their Application in the Petroleum Industry

فهرست منابع
1. نیکبخت، حمیدرضا، داوری تجاری بین‌المللی «آیین داوری» ، تهران: موسسه مطالعات و پژوهشهای بازرگانی، چاپ دوم، 1390، ص 11.
2. نیکبخت، حمیدرضا، شناسایی و اجرای آرای داوری‌ها در ایران، تهران: موسسه مطالعات و پژوهشهای بازرگانی، چاپ دوم، 1393، ص 7.
3. نیکبخت، حمیدرضا، داوری تجاری بین‌المللی «آیین داوری» ، تهران: موسسه مطالعات و پژوهش‌های بازرگانی، چاپ سوم، 1393، ص 10.
4. امور حقوقی شرکت ملی نفت ایران، مجموعه قوانین و مقررات نفت، گاز و پتروشیمی، جلد اول، اداره کل روابط عمومی وزارت نفت، تهران، 1381، ص 518.
5. شیروی، عبدالحسین، بررسی قانون نمونه آنسیترال در خصوص سازش بین‌المللی، اندیشه‌های حقوقی، سال چهارم، شماره دهم، 1385، ص 46.
6. Bar-Yaacov, Nissim, The Handling of International Disputes by Means of Inquiry, Oxford, 1974, pp 241-246.
7. Cot, Jean­Pierre, La Conciliation Internationale, Éditions A. Pedone, Paris, 1968, p 582.
8. Dore, Isaak Ismail, Arbitration and Conciliation under the UNCITRAL Rules: A Textual Analysis, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986, pp 7-8.
Articles in books
9. Griffith Gavan & Andrew D. Mitchell, Contractual Dispute Resolution in International Trade: The UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (1976) and the UNCITRAL Conciliation Rules (1980), Melbourne Journal of International Law, vol. 8, 2002, pp 184-199.
10. Herrmann, Gerold, Commentary on the UNCITRAL Conciliation Rules, VI Yearbook of Commercial Arbitration, 1981, p 173.
11. Lester Nurick, and Schnably, Stephen J., The First ICSID Conciliation: Tesoro Petroleum Corporation v. Trinidad and Tobago, ICSID Review—Foreign Investment Law Journal, Vol. 1, 1986, p 348.
12. Mangoldt, Hans von, “Arbitration and Conciliation,” in Judicial Settlement of international Disputes: International Court of Justice and Other Courts and Tribunals, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1974, p. 430.
13. Reif, Linda C., “Conciliation as a Mechanism for the Resolution of International Economic and Business Disputes”, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 14, Issue 3, 1990, (pp 578-638).
14. Schwartz, Eric A., “International Conciliation and the ICC,” ICSID Review Foreign Investment Law Journal, Volume 16, Number 2, Fall 2001, p. 112.
15. Ucheora Onwuamaegbu, Resolution of Oil and Gas Disputes at ICSID, News form ICSID, Volume 21, No. 1, Summer 2004, p 14.
Conventions and UN Resolutions
16. Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States, Mar. 18,1965,17 U.S.T. 1270,575 U.N.T.S. 159; 4 ILM 524 (1965) Rule 6(1) (b).
17. Energy Charter Treaty. Available at:
18. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), ICC Mediation Rules )2014.(
19. Resolution No. 35/52 adopted by the General Assembly, UNCITRAL Conciliation Rules (1980), United Nations, New York, 1980.
20. Resolution No. 57/18 adopted by the General Assembly on the report of the Sixth Committee (A/57/562 and Corr.1), Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law with Guide to Enactment and Use, United Nations, New York, 2004.
Internet Resources
21. Facts and figures regarding the speed and success rate of mediation in resolving disputes: )last visited on 16/07/2016).
22. Facts and figures regarding the cost per barrel of petroleum production:
23. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Investment Treaty News (ITN). available at: (last visited on 20/05/2016).
24. Rao M. Jagannadha, Concepts of Conciliation and Mediation and Their Differences, 2003, p. 7, available at:
25. Ollivry Guy et al, Law Reform Commission Report: Mediation and Conciliation in Commercial Matters, Port Louis, 2010, footnote 1, p.1, available at: