The impact of the United Nations on the development of the international legal status of nongovernmental organizations

Document Type : Original Article


1 ُStudent of Postgraduate Center of Payame Noor University

2 member of faculty of law at ATU university

3 Dr. , Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Garmsar PNU University, Tehran, Iran


States still are the major subjects of international law in normalization and adherence to the international law rules.The formation of international organizations and following that the emergence and growth of non-state actors brought about tremendous changes. meanwhile, NGOs have taken a larger share of the role. The United Nations with two approaches, legitimacy and Professional utilization have played a major role in the official development of these actors. The informal role of NGOs also expanded. The General Assembly and the Security Council benefit from the consultation of these organizations beyond the UN documents, which limited the consultation with NGOs for ECOSOC. Some international bodies, such as the Council of Europe and the Organization of American States, have promoted the skill of these actors by providing a participatory status beyond the consultative status, They have the right to vote and equal representation rights in their assemblies. The mechanism of Interaction of ECOSOC with NGOs has led to systematic cooperation and the quantitative and qualitative growth of NGOs, But at the same time it has led to the rise of non-independent and pro-government NGOs. The review and adoption of this mechanism is necessary in the current context of global civil society.


Main Subjects

ایاز ابوطالب (1395)، نقش سازمان‌های بین‌المللی غیردولتی NGO‌ در حفظ صلح و امنیت
         بین‌المللی، چاپ اول ، تهران، انتشارات کتاب من یار مهربان.
            بیگ‌زاده ابراهیم(1394)، حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، چاپ سوم، تهران، نشر م
          گلشن­پژوه محمودرضا (1386)، راهنمای سازمان‌های غیردولتی، چاپ دوم، تهران، موسسه مطالعات
Baumann Jonas and Clayton Govinda, (2017), “Mediation in violent conflIct”, Journal of
         the Center for Security Studies (CSS) at Zurich, No 211.
Baylis John, Smith Steve & Owens Patricia (2008),"The Globalization of World
        Politics", Oxford University Press.
Bendell Jem (2006), "Debating NGO Accountability", UN Non-Governmental
        Liaison (NGLS), New York.
Bernstorff Jochen von (2007), "Non-State Actors in law-making and in the shaping of
       policy On the legality and legitimacy of NGO participation in international law",
Bonseok Koo, Bryan (2011), "Successful Models of Non-Governmental Organizations
        in Consultative Status: Best Practices on Climate Change", The DESA NGO
        Branch, UN, New York.
Detter Ingrid (2000), "The Law of War",Cambridge University Press.
Dupuy Pierre-Marie, Vierucci Luisa (2008), "NGOs in international law: effi-
        ciency in flexibility", UK & USA.
Gemmill, Barbara and Bamidele-Izu, Abimbola (2007), "The Role of NGOs and Civil
       Society in Global Environmental Governance", Journal of global environmental
Haral Ben-Ari, Rephael(2013),"The Legal Status of International Non
        Governmental Organizations: analysis of past and present initiatives (1912-
        2012)", Netherlands.
Giorgou Irena, (2013), “State Involvement in the Perpetration of Enforced\
         Disappearance and the Rome Statute”, Journal of International Criminal Justice 11,
        Oxford University Press.
Lindblom Anna-Karin (2005), "Non Governmental Organizations in
        InternationalLaw", Cambridge University Press.
Lindblom Anna-Karin (2005), "Non Governmental Organizations in
        InternationalLaw", Cambridge University Press.
Martens, Kerstin (2011), "Civil society and accountability of the United Nations, in:
       Scholte, Jan Aart (ed): Building Global Democracy? Civil Society and
       Accountable Global Governance", Cambridge University Press.
Szazi Eduardo (2012), Ngos: Legitimate Subjects Of  International Law, Leiden University Press, The Netherlands.
 Symank, Rouven(2017), "A Global Crackdown on Civil Society: Assessing the
         accreditation Practice of the United Nations Committee on NGOs", The DESA
          NGO Branch, UN, New York.
Vromen Simone (2017), “The Council Committee on NGOs: An analysis of the reports
         of the Council Committee on NGOs between 2005 and 2015”Journal of Utrecht
Willetts Peter (2000),"From consultative arrangements to partnership: the changing
       status of NGOs in diplomacy", The UN Global Governance,Vo.6.
Willetts, Peter(1996), "The Conscience of the World – The Influence of Non-
       Governmental Organisations in the UN System", London.
Amnesty international handbook 2002, available at:
Resolution Res(2003)8,"Participatory status for international non-governmental
        organizations with the Council of Europe", available at:
UN DOC. A/CONF.151/26/Rev.1(1992), "Report of the United Nations Conference in
        Environment and Development", available at:
        documents/ga/conf151/ aconf15126-4.htm.
UN Report (2003), Survey of Civil Society: "UN and Civil Society Relationship
         Questionnaire on NGO Opinion– background paper for the Cardoso panel",
         available at:
UN Doc A/57/387,2002, "Strengthening of the United Nations: an agenda for further
        change, report of the Secretary General" ,available at:
UN Doc.A/58/817, 2004, "We the people: civil society, the United Nations and global
          governance", Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil Society
UN DOC A/57/387,2002, "Strengthening of the United Nations: an agenda for further
         change, report of the Secretary General".
UN DOC A/58/817, 2004,"We the people: civil society, the United Nations and global
         governance",  Report of  the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil  
         Society Relations.
Survey of Civil Society, 2003, "UN and Civil Society Relationship – Questionnaire on
         NGO Opinion – background paper for the Cardoso panel", available at:  
The Preamble of the Resolution Res(2003)8, “Participatory status for international non-
          governmental organizations with the Council of Europe”, adopted by the CoE
          Committee of Ministers on 19 November 2003.