بهره‌برداری تجاری از شهرت درگذشتگان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

10.22034/jlr.2019.178645.1353

چکیده

شهرت تنها متعلق به زمان حیات نیست، پس از مرگ نیز، ادامه دارد. حتی ممکن است با وقوع مرگ، شهرت شخص بیشتر نیز بشود. پرسش اصلی این است که از لحاظ حقوقی، شهرت شخص پس از مرگش متعلق به کیست؟ آیا همچون اموال، به وراث خواهد رسید یا آنکه سرنوشت متفاوتی خواهد داشت؟ برای پاسخ‌گویی به این پرسش، می‌توان شهرت شخص را حقی غیرمالی و وابسته به خود شخص معرفی کرد که با مرگ او خاتمه می‌یابد اما حقیقت این است که عرف، شهرت شخص را همچون مال می‌بیند، لذا پرداخت پول در برابر استفاده از آن را موجه تلقی می‌کند. در نتیجه، به نظر می‌رسد تلقی شهرت به عنوان مال ترجیح داشته باشد. در این راستا، حق مورد بحث نیز، همانند دیگر حقوق مالی پس از فوت شخص به ورثه او خواهد رسید. پیشگیری از دارا شدن بلاجهت شرکت‌های تجاری در استفاده از شهرت دیگران و جلوگیری از فریب مصرف‌کنندگان به عنوان مؤید همین باور قابل ذکر هستند. در حقوق آمریکا، آلمان و فرانسه گرایش غالب به همین سمت است. در حقوق ایتالیا، رویه واحدی قابل احراز نیست. در نظام حقوقی ما، با توجه به سکوت ادبیات حقوقی، تلاش می‌شود در این مقاله، امکان ارث‌بری وراث از شهرت مورث‌شان بررسی شود. در نهایت نیز، مهم‌ترین دستاورد این مقاله، پذیرش این نکته است که حق بهره‌برداری از شهرت پس از فوت اشخاص به وراث‌شان خواهد رسید. در این مقاله، با استفاده از روش کتابخانه‌ای مطالب مرتبط در این زمینه گردآوری و سپس، ارزیابی و تحلیل شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Commercial exploitation of the reputation of the deceased

چکیده [English]

The reputation is not solely to the living human being, after death, too. Even with the onset of death, it may even become more popular. The main question is who owns a person's reputation after his death? Will the person's reputation, like any other property, be inherited, or is this right different from the other property? To answer this question, one can identify a person's personal reputation as a non-personal and affiliated person who ends with the death of a person, but the fact is that The custom has seen a person's reputation as a commodity And considers payment against using it as justifiable. So, it seems that accepting the financial aspect of this right is preferable. On this basis, it seems that this right, like all other financial rights, will reach his heirs after the death of a person. This analysis will prevent the business from having to use other people's reputation and prevent consumers from being deceived. In American law, Germany and France, the prevailing tendency is the same. In Italian law, there is no single approach. In our legal system, given the silence of legal literature, attempts are made to take steps to address this issue. This study has been done by documentary method and survey in related texts to gather relevant information.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Reputation
  • personality
  • inheritance
  • Property
  • deceased

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