واکاوی وجوه اشتراک و افتراق «اقدامات مجرمانة مشترک» و «سردستگی گروه مجرمانه»

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده حقوق دانشکاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشجوی دکترای

10.22034/jlr.2019.176329.1345

چکیده

چکیده
دکترین "اقدامات مجرمانة مشترک" یکی از اَشکال بحث‌برانگیز مسؤولیت کیفری در قلمرو حقوق کیفری بین‌المللی به شمار می‌رود که در پرتو آراء دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی برای یوگسلاوی سابق، شکل گرفته و قوام یافته است و متعاقب آن، از سوی این دیوان و نیز دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی برای رواندا، مکرراً مورد استناد قرار گرفته است. از سوی دیگر، در حقوق کیفری ایران نیز "سردستگی گروه مجرمانه"، با مشخصه‌های فعلی، بی‌تردید یکی از نوآوری‌های قانون مجازات اسلامی مصوب سال 1392 محسوب می‌شود که در مادة 130 آن تبلور یافته است. در این نوشتار، تلاش شده است تا با تطبیق و مقایسة مختصات این دو مفهومِ مشابه اما متمایز از یکدیگر، مهمترین وجوه اشتراک و افتراق این دو نهاد حقوقی – که یکی نشأت گرفته از حقوق کیفری بین‌المللی و دیگری زاییدة حقوق کیفری ایران است - تبیین گردد تا از رهگذر آن، امکان رفع خلاءهای احتمالی موجود در قانون فعلی فراهم شود.
واژگان کلیدی: اقدامات مجرمانة مشترک، گروه مجرمانه، سردستگی، مشارکت، معاونت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparison between the Two Notions of “Joint Criminal Enterprise” and “Leadership of Criminal Group”

نویسندگان [English]

  • hossin mirmohamdsadeghi 1
  • ali ezdyar 2
1 dr
2 astudent
چکیده [English]

The doctrine of “Joint Criminal Enterprise” is considered as a controversial form of criminal responsibility in international criminal law. This doctrine has been formed and developed in the light of the case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and has frequently been emphasized by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). On the other hand, in the Iranian criminal law, “Leadership of Criminal Group” is one of the innovations of Islamic Penal Code approved in 2013 reflected in its Article 130. In this article, the most important similarities and differences between these two legal institutions – the former being derived from international criminal law and the latter based on the Iranian criminal law - are discussed, and certain suggestions have been given to improve the Iranian law in this regard.

Keywords: Joint Criminal Enterprise, Criminal Group, Leadership, Co-perpetration, Aiding and Abetting.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Joint Criminal Enterprise
  • Criminal Group
  • Leadership
  • Co-perpetration
  • Aiding and Abetting
فهرست منابع

الف) فارسی

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6- شمس ناتری، محمد ابراهیم و دیگران، قانون مجازات اسلامی در نظم حقوقی کنونی، تهران: نشر میزان، چاپ دوم، 1393.

7- میرکمالی، علیرضا و دیگران، "نظریة فعالیت مجرمانة مشترک در پرتو آرای دادگاه کیفری بین‌المللی برای یوگسلاوی سابق"، فصلنامه تحقیقات حقوقی، دوره 21، شماره 82، تابستان 1397.

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10- میرمحمدصادقی، حسین، دادگاه کیفری بین‌المللی، تهران: انتشارات دادگستر، چاپ نهم، بهار 1395.

11- نوربها، رضا، زمینه حقوق جزای عمومی، تهران: کتابخانه گنج دانش، چاپ بیست و هفتم، 1388.

ب) انگلیسی

1- کتب و مقالات

1- Ambos, Kai, “Joint Criminal Enterprise and Command Responsibility”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.5, No.1, March 2007.

2- Boas, Gideon & James L. Bischoff & Natalie L. Reid, Forms of Responsibility in International Criminal Law, International Criminal Law Practitioner Library Series, Vol.1, Cambridge University Press, 1st ed, 2007.

3- Bogdan, Attila, “Individual Criminal Responsibility in the Execution of a ‘Joint Criminal Enterprise’ in the Jurisprudence of the ad hoc International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia”, International Criminal Law Review, Vol.6, No.1, 2006.

4- Cassese, Antonio, International Criminal Law, Oxford University Press, 2003.

5- Cassese, Antonio, “The Proper Limits of Individual Responsibility under the Doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.5, No.1, March 2007. 

6- Danner, Allison Marston & Jenny S. Martinez, “Guilty Associations: Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development of International Criminal Law”, California Law Review, Vol.93, No.1, January 2005.

7- Engvall, Linda, Extended Joint Criminal Enterprise in International Criminal Law, Master thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Lund, June 2005.

8- Gustafson, Katrina, “The Requirement of an ‘Express Agreement’ for Joint Criminal Enterprise Liability: A Critique of Brđanin”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.5, No.1, March 2007.

9- Haan, Verena, “The Development of the Concept of Joint Criminal Enterprise at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia”, International Criminal Law Review, Vol.5, No.2, 2005.

10- Hamdorf, Kai, “The Concept of a Joint Criminal Enterprise and Domestic Modes of Liability for Parties to a Crime: A Comparison of German and English Law”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.5, No.1, March 2007.

11- Jayangakula, Kitti, Is the Doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise a Legitimate Mode of Individual Criminal Liability? - A Study of the Khmer Rouge Trials, Master thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Lund, Spring 2010.

12- Karnavas, Michael G, “Joint Criminal Enterprise at the ECCC: A Critical Analysis of the Pre-Trial Chamber’s Decision Against the Application of JCE III and two Divergent Commentaries on the Same”, Criminal Law Forum, Vol.21, No.3,4, December 2010.

13- Krebs, Beatrice, “Joint Criminal Enterprise”, The Modern Law Review, Vol.73, No.4, July 2010.

14- Ohlin, Jens David, “Joint Criminal Confusion”, New Criminal Law Review, Vol.12, No.3, Summer 2009.

15- Ohlin, Jens David, “Three Conceptual Problems with the Doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.5, No.1, March 2007.

16- Perova, Natalia, “Stretching the Joint Criminal Enterprise Doctrine to the Extreme: When Culpability and Liability Do Not Match”, International Criminal Law Review, Vol.16, No.5, 2016.

17- Powles, Steven, “Joint Criminal Enterprise: Criminal Liability by Prosecutorial Ingenuity and Judicial Creativity?”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.2, No.2, 2004.

18- Sliedregt, Elies van, “Joint Criminal Enterprise as a Pathway to Convicting Individuals for Genocide”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.5, No.1, March 2007.

19- Wilt, Harmen van der, “Joint Criminal Enterprise: Possibilities and Limitations”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.5, No.1, March 2007.

20- Yanev, Lachezar D, Theories of Co-perpetration in International Criminal Law, Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018.

2- پرونده‌ها

1- Prosecutor v. Blagojević and Jokić, Case No: IT-02-60-T, Trial Judgement, 17 January 2005.

2- Prosecutor v. Brđanin, Case No: IT-99-36-A, Appeal Judgement, 3 April 2007.

3- Prosecutor v. Brđanin, Case No: IT-99-36-T, Trial Judgement, 1 September 2004.

4- Prosecutor v. Delalić, Mucić, Delić and Landžo, Case No: IT-96-21-T, Trial Judgement, 16 November 1998 (Čelebići Trial Judgement).

5- Prosecutor v. Furundžija, Case No: IT-95-17/1-A, Appeal Judgement, 21 July 2000.

6- Prosecutor v. Furundžija, Case No: IT-95-17/1-T, Trial Judgement, 10 December 1998.

7- Prosecutor v. Gacumbitsi, Case No: ICTR-2001-64-A, Appeal Judgement, 7 July 2006.

8- Prosecutor v. Kayishema and Ruzindana, Case No: ICTR-95-1-A, Appeal Judgement (Reasons), 1 June 2001.

9- Prosecutor v. Kordić and Čerkez, Case No: IT-95-14/2-T, Trial Judgement, 26 February 2001.

10- Prosecutor v. Krajišnik, Case No: IT-00-39-T, Trial Judgement, 27 September 2006.

11- Prosecutor v. Krnojelac, Case No: IT-97-25-A, Appeal Judgement, 17 September 2003.

12- Prosecutor v. Krnojelac, Case No: IT-97-25-T, Trial Judgement, 15 March 2002.

13- Prosecutor v. Krstić, Case No: IT-98-33-T, Trial Judgement, 2 August 2001.

14- Prosecutor v. Kvočka et al, Case No: IT-98-30/1-A, Appeal Judgement, 28 February 2005.

15- Prosecutor v. Kvočka et al, Case No: IT-98-30/1-T, Trial Judgement, 2 November 2001.

16- Prosecutor v. Milutinović et al, Case No: IT-99-37-AR72, Decision on Dragoljub Ojdanić’s Motion Challenging Jurisdiction - Joint Criminal Enterprise, Appeals Chamber, 21 May 2003.

17- Prosecutor v. Mpambara, Case No: ICTR-01-65-T, Trial Judgement, 11 September 2006.

18- Prosecutor v. Munyakazi, Case No: ICTR-97-36A-T, Trial Judgement and Sentence, 5 July 2010.

19- Prosecutor v. Ntakirutimana and  Ntakirutimana, Case No: ICTR-96-10-A and ICTR 96-17-A, Appeal Judgement, 13 December 2004.

20- Prosecutor v. Simba, Case No: ICTR-01-76-T, Trial Judgement and Sentence, 13 December 2005.

21- Prosecutor v. Simba, Case No: ICTR-2001-76-I, Amended Indictment, 10 May 2004.

22- Prosecutor v. Simić et al, Case No: IT-95-9-T, Trial Judgement, 17 October 2003.

23- Prosecutor v. Stakić, Case No: IT-97-24-A, Appeal Judgement, 22 March 2006.

24- Prosecutor v. Stakić, Case No: IT-97-24-T, Trial Judgement, 31 July 2003.

25- Prosecutor v. Stanišić and Župljanin, Case No: IT-08-91-A, Appeal Judgement, 30 June 2016.

26- Prosecutor v. Tadić, Case No: IT-94-1-A, Appeal Judgement, 15 July 1999.

27- Prosecutor v. Vasiljević, Case No: IT-98-32-A, Appeal Judgement, 25 February 2004.

28- Trial of Josef Kramer and 44 others, British Military Court, Lüneburg, 17th September - 17th November, 1945, Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, Selected and Prepared by the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC), Published for the United Nations War Crimes Commission by his Majesty’s Stationery Office, Vol.II, London, 1947.

29- Trial of Martin Gottfried Weiss and thirty-nine others, General Military Government Court of the United States Zone, Dachau, Germany, 15th November - 13th December, 1945, Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, Selected and Prepared by the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC), Published for the United Nations War Crimes Commission by his Majesty’s Stationery Office, Vol.XI, London, 1949.