ماهیت و موضوعات حقوقی کلیدی موافقت‌نامه پاریس در خصوص تغییرات اقلیمی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانش آموخته حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

تمایز قائل شدن میان قالب حقوقی و ساختار موافقت‌نامه پاریس در کل و محتوای خاصّ مقررات و عناصر فردی این سند حائز اهمیت است موافقت‌نامه پاریس طبق تعریف کنوانسیون وین در خصوص حقوق معاهدات یک معاهده است، اما همه مقررات این موافقت‌نامه تعهد حقوقی ایجاد نمی‌کند. موافقت‌نامه با پذیرش یک ساختار دوگانه، آمیزه‌ای از مقررات الزام‌آور و غیرالزام‌آور را در خود جای داده است. این موافقت‌نامه دربردارنده مجموعه‌ای از تعهدات سخت، نرم و موارد غیرتعهدآور است که مرز میان آن‌ها نامشخص است اما هریک از آن‌ها نقش متمایز و ارزشمندی را ایفا می‌کنند. این مقاله با روش دگماتیسم و به صورت توصیفی- تحلیلی، قالب حقوقی، قلمرو اجرایی و ساختار دوگانه بالا به پایین و پایین به بالا موافقت‌نامه پاریس را مورد بحث قرار می‌دهد و شاخصه‌های تعیین میزان الزام‌آوری مفاد اصلی موافقت‌نامه پاریس را شناسایی می‌نماید و آن‌ها را با تفکیک طیفی از تعهدات سخت، نرم و غیرتعهدآور که بیشترین تطابق را با آنها دارند ارائه می‌نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nature and Key Legal Issues of Paris Agreement on Climate Change

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azam Amini 1
  • Hojjat Mianabadi 2
  • Ehsan Daryadel 3
1 Assistant Professor of Public International Law Department of Law Faculty of law and political Science Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Assistant professor, Water Engineering Departments, Tarbiat Modares University
3 MA of International Law, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Distinguishing between legal form and structure of the Paris Agreement, in general, and specific content of its provisions and individual elements is of great improtance.This agreement is a treaty within the meaning of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, although not all provisions in it produce legally binding obligation. Paris Agreement has included a compound of legally and non-legally binding provisions while having a twofold structure (button-up and top-down).This agreement contains a mix of hard, soft, and non-obligations, the boundaries between which are blurred, but each of which plays a distinct and valuable role. This article has discussed legal form, scope and button-up, top-down structure of Paris Agreement using a dogmatic-descriptive approach, identifies legal character of provisions in the Paris Agreement, and then proceeds to tabulate the core provisions of the Paris Agreement across a spectrum from those that conform most closely to hard obligations to those that are best characterized as ‘non-obligations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Paris Agreement"
  • "Climate change"
  • "Legal Form"
  • "Hard Obligations"
  • "Soft Obligations"
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